Falling groundwater tables, surface and groundwater contamination, increasing and competing demands on limited water resources have emerged as significant challenges to the effective provision of water and sanitation facilities in Nepal. According to the Department of Water Supply and Sewerage in Nepal, regardless the fact that 80% of the total population have the access to drinking water, it does not have a good quality, which means that it is not safe. One of the reasons for this is the fact that the Nepal is the fourth most vulnerable country in the world to climate change, and it suffers from natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods and landslides. In April and May 2015 Nepal was impacted by two major earthquakes. As a result, around 1,570 water supplies have been completely destroyed, and another 3,500 systems are in need of repair. The VDC Kunchok in Nepal was the place with one of the hardest experiences of the earthquake mentioned above. It was estimated, that up to 100% of the population have no or limited access to water in this area. Currently, the local people have to travel up to 3.6 km on average in order to reach a water source. The following research proposal will be focused on the water source possibilities in VDC Kunchok, Nepal. The rainwater harvesting and construction of hand-dug wells will be estimated as an alternative source of water for the desired area.
The main objectives of the project include:
The traditional method of obtaining groundwater in rural areas of the modernising world, and still the most common, is by hand‑dug wells. Hand-dug wells suggest a cheap and low-tech way to access groundwater in rural locations in developing countries. These wells have low operational and maintenance costs because water can be extracted by hand bailing, without a pump. Hand dug wells can be easily deepened, which may be necessary if the ground water level drops. In order to construct a high quality well, it is essential to know the characteristics of different soils and their impact on the yield (water discharge), water quality and operation of the well.
The location of the well should be on a site, which is:
• water bearing.
• acceptable to the local community.
• suitable for the sinking methods available.
• not likely to be easily contaminated.
The activities for hand dug well technology development include:
• the community education and awareness activities to enable the people to understand the importance and benefits.
• the choice of a well site, based on geological factors, user preference, sanitary conditions, and accessibility.
• providing of the materials required for construction.
• selection of the methods of construction.
• construction process.
• disinfection of the well.
• building a drainage pit or other device for removal of standing water.
• building an animal trough.
The rainwater harvesting and storage may provide an additional water supply, when underground water is limited or difficult to reach.
The activities of rainwater harvesting implementation include:
• field investigation measurements of runoff in HH, which will provide the information on water harvesting period and the size of water tank determination.
• show local people the benefits of building their own tanks and give them the relevant information.
• garner the support of the district administration. A responsive, understanding, and supportive local level bureaucracy is absolutely essential.
• provide technical support, such as engineering expertise and construction advice.
The organised educational campaign should be an indispensable part of every water supply improvement project. The main reason is that the benefits to be gained from using larger quantities of clean water are not often understood by the local users.
The awareness programs should include:
• education of the local users so, that they can support the purity, or at least prevent the gross
contamination of the obtained water.
• education of local users concerning a greater use of water, especially for hygienic purposes (bathing, washing
clothes and cooking utensils).