Geographical Information System (GIS) provides an important tool for monitoring the water quality. It also checks the frequency of the rainfall and maps the water quality of water source. GIS systematically works at regional and national level. Through a database management system it can analyse the water quality and also monitors the environment. With GIS we can analyse the data about turbidity, phytoplankton, suspended particles and dissolved organic particles in water. GIS technology focuses on monitoring and management of water resources. It can help in promoting the sustainable use of water. This technology supplies information to formulate the water management policy.
Nepal is rich in water resources. Many forms of rivers and rivulets have made more potentialities to generate more hydropower in our country. But due to geographical location, we can find variation and different lacks behind the development of this sector. Also in the other hand, the trend of growing technologies like GIS has raised to mitigate difficulties of studying geographical features of the country. By using GIS it is possible to get the necessary information for the study and management of hydrology.
Remote sensing and GIS are the computer based science technologies developed for acquiring relevant data to evaluate, manage and monitor the information in digital form. The aerial photographs or satellite images are drawn to determine the watershed area. With GIS we can also study the topography, soil type and texture, temperature, rainfall prediction, crop farming near the water resource. GIS is an advanced technology to store, manage and display data related to water management. The comparison between the present, past and future details obtained from GIS can be more helpful for future research.
Flood warning is a major task in monitoring water resources. It should be given more emphasis to forecast floods. Many lives and properties have been lost due to the occurrence of flood. In the same way drought should be monitored. The flood reduction or drought monitoring program is run by using GIS technology. Hydrology analysis is important to reduce the loss of lives and the damage to properties due to these disasters. With GIS is possible to determine the range of disaster events like magnitudes, frequencies, depth, velocities so that it initially prevents them with warnings. The pre-analysis done by GIS is reliable and it can reduce such calamities.
Surface water risk management is fully determined thanks to the use of GIS. With GIS it is possible to control the water pollution through the information stored in a database. GIS is able to display the spatial hydrological data. A step by step process of viewing the images can give information about the weather condition. The data obtained from the surface water can be studied to be related with the amount of precipitation of the area. It provides the information related to the condition of the territory of a watershed. It also estimates the level of risk at which the aquatic habitats and their surrounding environments are exposed. The pollution in the surface water describes the content of pesticides and chemicals which are not to be used.
GIS in ground water helps in studying the depth of water source including its location and water quality. The ground water source can be studied before drilling or constructing water source. The ground water source may be at risk if it is not determined previously. Therefore, GIS gives information about agricultural plants, landfills and other causes for water resource contamination due to the construction of ground water captures.
Hence, GIS has many application fields providing reliable informative data. The related database can be useful for obtaining following information:
GIS plays a vital role in planning, designing and monitoring water resource management. The relevant data provided as database aim to use this technique for more convenient way. GIS Network at Thakur International proposes integrated methods for defining, monitoring and visualizing data, based on your project requirements.
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